Camps & Returns

Across the globe, IOM responds to emergencies that result in mass displacement. IOM acts as the lead agency for the  Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) Cluster in the event of a displacement crises caused by a natural disaster.  After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, IOM personnel responded within 24 hours, providing and coordinating life-saving services and eventually partnering with the Government of Haiti and the international humanitarian community in the search for durable solutions to the displacement crisis.

CCCM Working Group 

Currently, IOM acts as the lead agency for the CCCM working Group in Haiti, which is the coordination structure in place since the official Cluster closure in December 2014. The CCCM Working Group is led by the Government Housing Agency, ‘Unité de Construction de Logements et Bâtiments Publics’ (UCLBP). Current activities of CCCM partners are focused on providing durable solutions to the people displaced since 2010 and most recently, to the families displaced by hurricane Matthew, who hit Haiti in October 2016.

Government and partners’ efforts allowed to assist and facilitate the return of 97% of displaced population displaced from the 2010 but a last effort is required to end the displacement of the remaining displaced. . As coordinator and as last resort provider, IOM monitors, through a team of Camp Management Operations officers (CMOs), the humanitarian situation of the population internally displaced since 2010 and provides humanitarian assistance to the most vulnerable IDPs. IOM works towards providing durable solutions including the return of IDPs from the earthquake and hurricane Matthew to their areas of origin and the decommissioning of camps with key Governmental officials. A minimum of care and maintenance in camps is an essential humanitarian and lifesaving requirement, given the extremely high vulnerability of the population in camps, deteriorating physical conditions of tents and tarps, annual risks from being exposed to rain and hurricane season, and health hazards, including cholera.

Camp Management Operations (CMO)  

Over 7 years after the 2010 earthquake, an estimated 37,867 (9,347 households) IDPs living in 27 open  sites in Haiti[1]. Given the lack of durable housing solutions and despite a considerable reduction in the total displaced population since the onset of the emergency, the trend of decreasing displacement is slowing. 

Hurricane Matthew made landfall in Haiti on October 4th 2016, hitting the Southern Peninsula as a Category 4 hurricane. In the days before and after the hurricane, many people seek shelter in evacuation centers pre-determined by Civil Protection as well as in other buildings used as such (schools, public buildings, etc.). On October 10th, Civil Protection estimated that 175,000 were sheltered in 224 evacuation centers[2].

Although the majority of displaced persons have returned to their areas of origin, 3,618 persons remain displaced in 51 evacuation centers and camp-like settlements in the Grande Anse, South, and Nippes departments[3].

As the Camp Coordination, Camp Management (CCCM) sector agency lead, IOM leads the management of camps, in coordination with local organizations, authorities and camp committees, and community leaders. In addition, this leadership entails a responsibility to assist IDPs to access durable solutions within the framework of Government return and relocation strategies.

Conditions in camps from 2010 deteriorated rapidly in recent years as humanitarian actors exit due to a lack of funding. Currently only 6 CCCM partners implement activities in the remaining camps from the earthquake. For those remaining in camps awaiting returns assistance, a coherent CCCM response is required to maintain basic levels of standards for infrastructure, water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services, and mitigation works in camps. Aimed at responding to the needs of all IDPs currently living in camps, the Camp Management Operations (CMO) Unit carries out camp management activities throughout all IDP camps. CMO teams are needed to continue working closely with the GoH to improve camp conditions and provide for the protection and security of IDPs. Since 2010, to ensure the sustainability of its activities, IOM has carried out capacity building activities for DPC staff in CCCM. This has enabled the GoH to assume a more visible and responsive role in CCCM. 

Following the hurricane, a small CMO team was deployed to the Grande Anse and South Departments in order to monitor the humanitarian situation of displaced persons due to hurricane Matthew. CMOs provide essential information on the needs of displaced population and keep the contact with the community, allowing the identification of gaps and duplications in the assistance provided to the displaced population.

 Returns

In the past, return programs have included home improvements/repairs, retrofitting of existing houses, and relocation to rural areas.Currently, activities are focused almost exclusively on rental subsidies as most registered households have declared to be a tenant prior to the earthquake.

Bearing in mind the vulnerability of the persons remaining in camps over seven years after the January 2010 earthquake, the Government of Haiti (GoH) and the humanitarian community see the decommissioning of camps as a high priority. To date, the most effective strategy to facilitate voluntary camp exits is direct rental assistance that allows IDPs to identify a safe home in a neighborhood of their choosing for a 12-month period

IOM maintains a database that tracks information on IOM relocated families from the moment IDPs find a suitable lodging that meets the agreed criterias (i.e. environmental risks, MTPTC ratings, access to water and sanitation facilities etc.) to their actual relocation to the house of their choice. Eight  weeks after the move, monitoring visits are done which constitutes the final verification before completing the grant disbursement and closing the process on the field.

Three sites in the commune of Delmas have benefited from the rental subsidy programs carried out by IOM. Those three sites (Acra Cite Nord Delmas 33, Acra Zone South and Village AFCA 2) do not house any more IDP households as of this reporting period. Official closure letters from the Mayor of this commune have been signed, officially classifying these sites as closed in the DTM. 

 

Protection

The Protection Unit works with the return and relocation of IDPs project to ensure that protection is applied and taking into account across all activities implemented. The objective of the Protection Unit's return team is to enable all vulnerable people in targeted camps to benefit from IOM services, depending on their specific needs, so that they can leave the camps and reintegrate into their neighborhood of origin in dignified conditions and with a sense of personal fulfillment. To this end, the Government of Canada and IOM are implementing many activities in the camps, including identifying and assessing the needs of the most vulnerable, distributing "Non-Food Items" (NFI), capacity building / training as well as referral to appropriate care services (implementing partners or other IOM units).
To date, nearly 7,000 vulnerable IDPs have been identified and assessed. They also received follow-ups adapted to their needs, such as support to implement income-generating activities (AGR), restitution of ID documents, sanitary and / or nutritional assistance or referral for the most vulnerable (disabled persons, minors, etc.) to specialized partners.


[1] IOM Haiti- Cumulative Report-Displacement in Haiti- June 2017

[2] 6 Rapport de situation #7 – SNGRD/COUD, October 10th, 2016

[3] IOM Haiti- Cumulative Report-Displacement in Haiti- June 2017